Friday, May 22, 2020

Brain Tumors - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 1 Words: 305 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/09/15 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? BRAIN TUMORS AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGY Brain tumors are defined abnormal growth of cells within the brain or the central spinal area. It may result in death if not treated. Its physical symptoms are chronic seizures, chronic headaches, progressive neurologic deficits, in children Gait disturbance, failure to thrive and increasing head size. There are also clinical symptoms and some of these are cognitive deficits such as hakims trait of hydrocephalus and visual problems like hemi paresis. It can be diagnosed radiologically through Brain magnetic resonance imaging scans (MRI’s) with or without paramagnetic contrast, head computed tomography (CT) scans which both provide information on the size, location, morphology, mass effect and clues to malignancy. The cancer may lead to neurological complications such as gait ataxia, papilledema, hemi sensory deficits, breast mass and abdominal mass. These tumors can be managed through surgical means such as neuroendoscopy, micro neurosurgery and stereotactic surgery. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Brain Tumors" essay for you Create order All these may provide tissue for H path diagnosis, reduce tumor load, reduce mass effect and helps prolong useful life. Brain tumors and cancer propel neuropsychological changes which involve changes between brain functions and behavior such as headaches and cognitive dysfunctions which may include memory problems, mood alteration and even strokes. Resulting from brain tumors, patients may develop deficits such as poor attention and concentration, visual spatial processing, mathematics and reading problems, poor visual motor integration and speed and these deficits depend on the location of tumors, size and grade of development. With some of these deficits, the individual might easily forget names, drive recklessly and even be a ‘‘bad’’ student when in school. Rehabilitation takes place with intervention, during which the patient compelled or counseled on the cancer. Remediation also as a rehabilitation method involves giving out medical drugs to the patient. The rest are social support and multidisciplinary approach, in which different techniques are used.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Oceans On Earth - 1284 Words

The oceans on earth are some of the most diverse areas around the globe and we are hurting it very badly. Lots of these oceans provide food and jobs for many people. When we pollute the ocean we are diminishing the life in these bodies of water. The oceans can not survive with trash much longer, so we need to do something about it, because we have all the resources and plenti of people to think of ways to help better protect this diverse ecosystem. The earth has many great features living among it. The ocean can be a very mysterious place that we don’t actually know all that much about. There are many problems facing our oceans today, such as: pollution and people throwing trash in our oceans. We can stop all of these problems through STEM. STEM covers Science Technology Engineering and Math, these four groups can fix many problems. When diving on a coral reef you can see many beautiful things, but one of the things you don’t want to see is plastic floating around and f ish swimming around it. This was one of the things I saw when I went to the Caribbean. The oceans are very beautiful places that don’t deserve the way we treat it. Fish and other sea creatures will eat just about anything; for example, the Tiger shark is known as the garbage can of the sea. There are many different things that have been found in the bell of tiger sharks, such as: fur coats, knights in armour, ancient medals, polar bears, reindeer, tires, shoes, chicken coops with chickens inside, cannonShow MoreRelatedThe Earth s Oceans And Its Impact On Earth1269 Words   |  6 Pages The earth’s oceans are overfished. Nearly 80 percent of commercial fisheries are overexploited and some experts believe that global fisheries will completely collapse by 2048 (Barkin page 1). While these are just facts that tell the worst-case scenario, they should be alarms that spark change in the way we fish. This paper, however, will specifically target overfishing in the Grand Banks in Newfoundland, Canada, and analyze its impact on Earth, its Environment and Humanity. Over fishing is simplyRead MoreThe Earth s Oceans And The Mysteries1387 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction: The ocean covers more than seventy percent of the surface of our planet, and yet only five percent of this great mass has been explored. It is the livelihood of marine scientists to explore and learn about the Earth’s oceans and the mysteries they hold. One of the greatest scientific discoveries of the twentieth century is of deep-sea hydrothermal vents. It is these vents that continue the age-old questioning of where did life on earth originate? Discovering the Vents: In 1977, aRead MoreEarths Dynammic Ocean and Atmosphere785 Words   |  4 PagesUniversity of Phoenix Material Earth’s Dynamic Ocean and Atmosphere I Worksheet From Visualizing Earth Science, by Merali, Z., and Skinner, B. J, 2009, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Copyright 2009 by Wiley. Adapted with permission. Part 1 Sections 12.1 and 12.2 of the text discuss the origin and composition of the world ocean’s seawater. What is the current theory on the evolution of the world ocean? Discuss the origin of the salinity of seawater and how the ocean maintains salinity. A: The current theoryRead MoreOceans : The Life Of Planet Earth1536 Words   |  7 PagesOceans: The life of planet Earth Oceans cover 71% of Earth s surface and are the most diverse biomes in the world. They regulate global temperature by distributing heat around the globe and hold 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere. However, due to the recent increase in CO2 levels, all of the world is being threatened by sea-level rise, melting ice caps, and ocean acidification. If we continue down this path we are bound to repeat the events of the Great Dying, which wiped out nearly allRead MoreThe Earth Has Vast Oceans2050 Words   |  9 PagesOut of the eight planets in our solar system, Earth is the only planet circling the Sun on which life as we know it could (and does) exist. Unlike any other planet, the Earth has vast oceans with millions of small islands in them, green vegetation, huge landmasses, different topographies, like the mountains, ice caps and deserts, all of which present an amazing variety of color and texture. be the extremely cold Antarctica, where hardy microscopic beings thrive in pond s, tiny wingless insects liveRead MoreIndustrialization Of The Earth s Oceans1802 Words   |  8 PagesSince the dawn of time, the existence and condition of the Earth’s oceans have been a major continuity throughout history. All seven seas serve as an extensive home to an estimated one million discovered species who rely on the ocean’s ecosystem to survive. As time progressed and the human race evolved, so did technology and industrialization. During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, industrial revolutions took place all over the planet, spreading new technology and ethics all throughoutRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Effect On Earth s Surface, Oceans, And Atmosphere1165 Words   |  5 PagesGlobal warming is the gradual increase of temperature in Earth’s surface, oceans, and atmosphere. Some people may say that global warming is just a theory that has not been proven scientifically; however, I do believe that global warming is happening and that there is strong evidence about this occurrence. Such evidence includes the increase of carbon dioxide, the rising of sea level, the increase of acid in the ocean, and clearly, the changes in global climate. In fact, mostly all sorts of humanRead MoreEarth s Deep Sea Sediment From The Ocean Floor963 Words   |  4 Pagesright in the middle sails through remote parts of the ocean carrying practically a whole village; complete with electricians, diesel mechanics, drillers, a captain and his crew, and a bunch of nerdy scientists. These â€Å"nerdy scientists† have one objective: to recover deep-sea sediment from the ocean floor in order to attain an age model of these sediments and reconstruct the earth’s climate. By analyzing microscopic shelled organisms from the ocean floor, associate professor Daniel Clay Kelly of UW-Madison’sRead MoreOur Oceans Are The Earth s Biggest Life Support Systems Essay2000 Words   |  8 Pagesexist, as we know it. This extremely important resource is the Ocean. The oceans are the â€Å"lifeblood of planet Earth and humankind†. In all, the oceans are the Earth s biggest life support systems. Our society depends on much from the oceans and because they are so important it is necessary to explore all they provide. They contribute to the air we breathe, the water we drink, food we eat, and also provide recreation. Specifically, the oceans provide a sixth of the animal protein people eat and also absorbsRead MoreOcean Running Like A River Round A Perfectly Circular Earth1247 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"I cannot help laughing at the absurdity of all the map-makers...who show Ocean running like a river round a perfectly circular earth, with Asia and Eur ope of the same size†¦the â€Å"proper notion of the size and shape of these two continents. Persian territory extends southward to the Red Sea, as it is called; north of them are the Medes, then the Saspires, then the Cholchians, who go as far as the northern sea, where the mouth of the Phasis is. These four nations fill the area between the Black sea

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Keynesian Economics Free Essays

Introduction   John Maynard Keynes was a British economist who studied the economy as whole as opposed to different parts of an economic system. He challenged the classical economic assumptions and its basic economic concepts and its explanations. Keynesian Revolution Keynes explained how the participants like Investors consumers behave and how the market system cannot always produce full-employment and how it cannot move to full employment at least in the short term without government intervention in the market system to keep the investment level and consumption level to produce closer to full employment. We will write a custom essay sample on Keynesian Economics or any similar topic only for you Order Now The classical market model and the price mechanism also was unable to explain the great depression 1930’s and Keynesian theory or the new Keynesian theory gave plausible explanation of recessions and boom and bust cycles of market economic systems and also gave prescriptions to stabilize these fluctuations by fiscal and monetary policy. In this sense as well as its considerable departure from the classical idea the market will self correct and government intervention must be minimum Keynesian economic thought emphasized the opposite that government has a legitimate role to pay in the market system to address the weaknesses in the market systems adjusting mechanisms of price signals at least in the Keynesian Revolution  short to medium terms to keep economic activity closer to full employment and redistribute income and wealth to the workers to increase aggregate demand. As  Discussed above It can be said Keynes economic model and ideas and explanation how the system works is definitely a revolution to the classical economic model which adds to the knowledge and refined the understanding of how an economic system works as a whole and how the parts are related. The economic forces which brought about Keynesian Economics The main economic force behind the Keynesian economics was the observation that the economy for several reasons due to economic shocks or lack of consumption if it produces unemployment temporarily the market system left to correct such imbalances did not produce employment levels closer to full-employment and the economy went through boom and bust cycles when the economy grows and there was considerable fluctuation in economic activity at least in British economic history. In order to understand such economic phenomena Keynes developed his Keynesian Economic model and created his Economic theory called The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money.   In addition the Great depression in 1930’s gave great concerns about how to correct such low levels of employment and misery and how to avoid it by appropriate economic policy. Revolutionary Nature of Keynesian Economics   Keynesian Economics is not studying a part of economy but to study the economy as whole and see how the parts are related. It gave a radically new model of the economy, changed the behavior of consumers assumption that they are rational to impulses and animal instincts as well it modified the functions of money that it can be a store of wealth as well as a medium of exchange It also theorized that investment level does not only depend on interest rate but on the expectations and outlook of investors future and gave a plausible explanation why price will not adjust so that to produce full employment because of Institutional factors and other factors prices will not fall to increase demand but produce more unemployment . In effect Keynesian theory gave why economy can come in to equilibrium less than the full employment level and can move through boom and bust cycles if allowed to work in the mercy of the market alone and the price mechanism. That is Keynesian economics gave governments a legitimate economic role to manage the economy close to full employment by Keynesian economic policy. In this regard as the earlier economic theories do not explain the above economic problems and Keynes gave some more insights which is radically different from the earlier economic models it is a revolution in Economics. The classical and Keynesian Economic theory of employment. The classical economic theory assumes the economic participants are rational. Keynes rejects this assumption and believes the participants need not be fully rational and they can act on instincts and subjective judgments and intuition. In classical economics they don’t take in to account institutional factors but in Keynesian economics they take in to account institutional factors. Classical economists keep other things equal and study a specific economic relationship. But Keynes economics they study the economy as whole and study all economic variables simultaneously. Classical economists believe price will self correct so that the economy will not be in unemployment for long period of time. Keynes rejects this and theorize that price stickiness in the market prevent the system to adjust to full employment level. In classical economics money is a medium of exchange but in Keynesian economics it is also a store of value. There fore in bad economic times Consumers will not spend but save for liquidity preferences and this may reduce aggregate demand and further increase unemployment. The relation ship between interest rate and Investment level for classical economist is strong. That is interest rate will affect investment level than other factors. That is investment level is sensitive to interest rate than other factors but for Keynesians other factors are important than interest rate. In classical economics they see a very limited role for government in economic affairs. But In Keynesian economics they see a legitimate and far greater degree of intervention The classical and Keynesian Economic theory of employment  to regulate economic activity to create full employment. As well Keynesian economics like to redistribute income and wealth to increase aggregate demand but classical economists do not believe in the redistribution of income will produce more employment. Keynesian explanation of the Great Depression According to Keynesian economics the great Depression is caused by inadequate investment and aggregate demand and the market system did not have the level of consumption and investment demand so that the economy as whole produced high level of unemployment because there is less government investment to take the slack in private investment levels and the inequality of income in the market system which produces less aggregate demand compared to if the income distribution is more equal. Keynesian Economic Policies Keynesian Economic policies are fiscal and monetary policy. Fiscal policy is the use of taxes and government welfare and other infrastructure and investment programs particularly in a recession and finances it through borrowings as well as deficit financing. In addition Keynesian economic policies are directed to trade policies to boost aggregate demand. In addition to that it uses interest rate to keep money supply under control to manage inflation and also to improve investment levels. However fiscal policy plays a major role in stabilizing aggregate demand rather than the use of monetary policy. In addition it also addresses the institutional factors, which makes the market to work more effectively so that government can regulate and minimize anti competitive practices. Bibliography Alan S. Blinder. â€Å"Keynesian Economics†. THE CONCISE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ECONOMICS. THE LIBRARY OF ECONOMICS and LIBERTY. 28 nNov.2006 (http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/KeynesianEconomics.html) Steve, Kangas. â€Å"A Critique of the Chicago School of Economics: A BRIEF REVIEW OF KEYNESIAN THEORY†. The Long FAQ on Liberalism. Liberalism Resurgent. 28 Nov.2006 (http://www.huppi.com/kangaroo/L-chikeynes.htm) The Canadian Encyclopedia. â€Å" Keynesian Economics†. The Canadian Encyclopedia. 28 Nov. 2006 (http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCEParams=A1ARTA0004289) wikipedia. â€Å"Causes of Great Depression†. Answers.com. 28 Nov. 2006 (http://www.answers.com/topic/causes-of-the-great-depression) WIKIPEDIA, The Free Encyclopedia. â€Å"Keynesian Revolution†. WIKIPEDIA, The Free Encyclopedia. 28 Nov 2006 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keynesian_economics) How to cite Keynesian Economics, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

This Is A Tale Of Arms And Of A Man. Fated To Be An Exile, He Was The

?This is a tale of arms and of a man. Fated to be an exile, he was the first to sail from the land of Troy and reach Italy at its Lavinian shore.?(27) Yes, Virgil's Aeneid is about the Trojan hero Aeneas and his travelings to eventually start the Roman empire. The Aeneid was a very subjective poem; the praise of Augustus Caesar and the Roman empire clearly echoes Virgil's own beliefs. Many people have labeled the Aeneid as propaganda for the Roman empire, propaganda in Latin means things which ought to be propagated and Virgil surely believed that the values shown throughout his story needed to be spread about a bit. Rome had just finished a bloody civil war a few decades before this writing and needed a strong moral compass which is what Virgil hoped to provide. The glory of war was a main part in Roman society; it was what made the Roman Empire extend from the northern border of Africa to the cold dark coast of the Atlantic Ocean. To do this they needed the mightiest army on earth, filled with young men eager to make the empire proud of them. Virgil knew this and decided to install that sense of pride in Aeneas, ?I fixed on a door-frontal a shield of hallowed bronze which had once been carried by the mighty Abas, and under it wrote a memorial, Armor captured from victorious Greeks and dedicated by Aeneas.? (84) This shows all the young Roman men that with war come the spoils of war. To recruit all these young men all they have to do is read that passage and show them what happens when they fight. A bronze shield would be a very expensive luxury at the time and for somebody to just leave it as a dedication shows that if Aeneas left such an expensive luxury he must have many others to spare. The thought of riches must have contributed to the number of young men in the military, and by having so many men in the military other nations would be intimidated by the power of it. Also with all the young men in the military it would be peer pressure for others to join. Just by showing what the spoils of war can bring you can increase your military exponentially over the years. Today countries, especially the South American counties use the spoils of being in the military to get men to join. Recently some of the countries down there were run by the military, to get young recruits they offered them the spoils of being in a position of power. The military would take money for protection and steal from those who opposed them. It wasn't an honest way to get recruits but it worked. Virgil wanted to make the citizens of Rome remember all their glorious past accomplishments and remember how great their ruler is. To do this he told of all the great past accomplishments on a shield made by Vulcan and given to Aeneas, ?On one side was Augustus Caesar leading Italians into battle, having with him the senate and populace, the little Gods of Home and the Great Gods of the race.? (221) When the people see this, they remember their great leader Caesar and all the good he had done for their people. They realize that he has the gods on his side and to resist him would be resisting the gods. This just emphasizes the rule of Caesar and his absolute authority. This is a common tactic used to emphasize the power of the ruler and tell of the good times. When a person comes to power everybody loves him, if they didn't he wouldn't be in power. But after a while that power goes to your head and you may start to get careless. When this happens, to get the support of the people back you have to remind them how much good you did for the country, and remind them of the power you hold. Caesar wanted everybody to follow the rules of the gods and thus have an orderly society. With words Virgil installed the notion of devotion of gods to Aeneas and his

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Free Essays on Romeo Juliet

uttered by the prince, â€Å" some shall be pardon’d and some punished â€Å", left the unanswered question of who will be pardoned and who punished. It seems very evident that Friar Laurence and the nurse should be pardoned, and the Montagues and Capulets should be punished as a result of the tragic events. This essay will give evidence on why these people shall be pardoned or punished. One of the people who had good intentions and should be pardoned, is Friar Laurence. From the beginning he did the best for Romeo, Juliet and both families. For example, at first Friar Laurence agreed to marry them because he thought it would end the feud between both their two families. Later, when Romeo was banished and Juliet suicidal, the friar gave Juliet the death potion because he had faith that it would allow Romeo and Juliet to be together. It also was a possible way to prevent her from committing actual suicide. The audience is aware of this when Friar Laurence says : â€Å"Hold daughter! I do spy a kind of hope, which craves as desperate as desperate an execution. As that is we would prevent.† (Act 4, i ) These statements and events should prove that Friar Laurence should be pardoned for their deaths. Another person that should be pardoned for the untimely deaths of Romeo and Juliet is the nurse. The nurses intentions are proven good because of the constant love and understanding she gave to Juliet. She did the best for Juliet and even passed Romeo’s message about the marriage on to Juliet. At one point though, the nurse gave up on Romeo and Juliet’s love and said : â€Å"I think it best you married with the county, O, he’s a lovely gen... Free Essays on Romeo Juliet Free Essays on Romeo Juliet In the tragic play, William Shakespeare’s, Romeo and Juliet, the last words uttered by the prince, â€Å" some shall be pardon’d and some punished â€Å", left the unanswered question of who will be pardoned and who punished. It seems very evident that Friar Laurence and the nurse should be pardoned, and the Montagues and Capulets should be punished as a result of the tragic events. This essay will give evidence on why these people shall be pardoned or punished. One of the people who had good intentions and should be pardoned, is Friar Laurence. From the beginning he did the best for Romeo, Juliet and both families. For example, at first Friar Laurence agreed to marry them because he thought it would end the feud between both their two families. Later, when Romeo was banished and Juliet suicidal, the friar gave Juliet the death potion because he had faith that it would allow Romeo and Juliet to be together. It also was a possible way to prevent her from committing actual suicide. The audience is aware of this when Friar Laurence says : â€Å"Hold daughter! I do spy a kind of hope, which craves as desperate as desperate an execution. As that is we would prevent.† (Act 4, i ) These statements and events should prove that Friar Laurence should be pardoned for their deaths. Another person that should be pardoned for the untimely deaths of Romeo and Juliet is the nurse. The nurses intentions are proven good because of the constant love and understanding she gave to Juliet. She did the best for Juliet and even passed Romeo’s message about the marriage on to Juliet. At one point though, the nurse gave up on Romeo and Juliet’s love and said : â€Å"I think it best you married with the county, O, he’s a lovely gen...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Using the Spanish Verb Salir

Using the Spanish Verb Salir Although salir is a very common verb that means to leave in the sense of to depart or to go out, it also has a variety of other meanings that may not immediately be obvious. Fast Facts Salir is a common verb that most often means to leave or to exit.In some contexts, salir can have other meanings that generally refer to the change in status, appearance, or location of someone or something as the result of an action.Salir is conjugated irregularly. Salir Meaning 'To Leave' Here are some examples of sentences with salirs most common meaning: Los Cubs salieron de Los ngeles con una victoria. (The Cubs left Los Angeles with a victory.) ¿Cundo saliste por primera vez de tu casa con tu bebà ©? (When did you leave home for the first time with your baby?)Mi avià ³n sale a las nueve con destino a Tijuana. (My plane leaves at 9 for Tijuana.)Voy a salir a comprar leche. (Im going out to buy milk.)Propongo que salgamos a la calle a celebrar el campeonato. (I suggest we go out to the street to celebrate the championship.)Saldrà © muy motivado pero sà © que no ser fcil. (I will leave very motivated, but I know it wont be easy.) Salir With Other Meanings Here are some other meanings of salir with sample sentences: to turn out: Me salià ³ bien la prueba. (The quiz turned out well for me.) Salà ­ enoja en la foto. (I turned out looking angry in the photo.)to appear (often said of a bodily condition): Me sale pus de los pendientes. (Im getting pus from my earrings.) Si lo tocas te saldr urticaria. (If you touch it youll break out in hives.)to rise (said of astronomical bodies): El sol sale hoy a las 7:12. (The sun rises today at 7:12.)to be published or disseminated: Estaba viendo el televisor cuando salià ³ las noticias de lo que habà ­a pasado en Nueva York. (I was watching the television when they told the news of what had happened in New York.) El libro salià ³ a la venta en los primeros dà ­as de noviembre. (The book went on sale in the first days of November.) In a negative form with an indirect object, salir can indicate the inability to accomplish something: No le salià ³ como esperaba. (It didnt turn out as he hoped.) No me sale este problemita de distancia entre 2 puntos. (I cant figure out this simple problem about the distance between two points.) In the reflexive form, salirse sometimes refers to some type of overflowing or leak: Pese a que hace seis meses se crearon las nuevas canalizaciones, el agua se salà ­a inundando las calles. (Despite it being six months since the new pipes were installed, the water leaked, flooding the streets.) The phrase salirse con la suya usually means to get ones way: Chvez se salià ³ con la suya y Coca-Cola retirà ³ el producto de la venta. (Chavez got his way and Coca-Cola took the product off the market.) Salir can also be a part of some common phrases: salir con (to go out with) - Teresa sale con Josà ©. (Teresa is going out with Jose.)salir de (to come from) - La leche es un alimento que sale de las vacas. (Milk is a food that comes from cows. Salir de more commonly means to leave or to exit.)salir caro (to be expensive): Sale muy caro deportar indocumentados. (It is very costly to deport undocumented people.) As always with words that have more than one meaning, pay attention to context in order to determine what is meant. Related Words La salida is a common noun with meanings related to those of salir. They include an exit or way out, the solution to a problem, a departure, the rising of the sun (or other astronomical body) and various kinds of output. The adjective salido can refer to something that is bulging or protruding. It can also refer to an animal in heat (or the human equivalent). The adjective saliente can refer to someone or something thats important or prominent, or to a politician who is leaving office. Conjugation of Salir Salir is often regular, but it adds a g to the stem in some forms and also modifies the ending in the indicative future and conditional tenses. Here are the irregular forms: Present indicative: yo salgo Future indicative: yo saldrà ©, tà º saldrs, à ©l/ella/usted saldr, nosotros/nosotras saldrà ­amos, vosotros/nosotras saldrà ©is, ellos/ellas/ustedes saldrn Conditional: yo saldrà ­a, tà º saldrà ­as, à ©l/ella/usted saldrà ­a, nosotros/nosotras saldrà ­amos, vosotros/nosotras saldrà ­ais, ellos/ellas/ustedes saldrà ­n Present subjunctive: yo salga, tà º salgas, à ©l/ella/usted salga, nosotros/nosotras salgamos, vosotros/nosotras salgis, ellos/ellas/ustedes salgan Affirmative imperative: sal tà º, salga usted, salgamos nosotros/nosotras, salgan ustedes Negative imperative: no salgas tà º, no salga usted, no salgamos nosotros/nosotras, no salgis vosotros/vosotras, no salgan ustedes.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Plagiarism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Plagiarism - Essay Example In all institutions of higher learning especially the Universities, plagiarism is regarded as intellectual theft, and it carries with it stringent penalties and more so if it is done wilfully. The plagiarized article or paper submitted by the student would be declared null and of no importance and the student would be awarded an F grade. In other Universities around the globe, such students would be suspended or expelled from their faculties, but the degree of the penalty varies in relation to intent, from unintentional to pure intent respectively. Therefore, this involves blatant show of ethical misconduct that carries very serious consequence to the writer. There are several types of plagiarism, some of which may include copying of work’s without including the quotations as part of your own work or making minor changes without proper permission or acknowledgement, using pictures or photographs from the internet, rewriting your own work or using the phrases or lines of a song without proper acknowledgement (Epigeum n.d.). In order to avoid plagiarism, it is important to keep a good record of materials, resources, and references that one has used during the note-taking stage. This is the most critical stage as plagiarism is usually not deliberate as a writer might forget to reference the works they have referred to during the research. It is also valuable to differentiate between other person’s quotations and original thoughts and in case a quotation is copied, remembers to record all information that might be needed later on, if the quotations are included in the final work. This not only helps in avoiding plagiarism but also saves time that can be used in proofreading the work (Epigeum n.d.). In addition, the writer must properly proofread his work to remove any plagiarized words and sentences carelessly inserted into the paper. Finally, all other sentences and words in the paper that have been imported from other writers and that the writer fee ls they might compliment his work should be properly cited. It is vital to write a paper or an article in one’s own words to sustain originality and avoid plagiarizing previous works. Whenever two or more people come together to write a single piece then present the single article as their own individual work, this becomes a type of plagiarism known as collusion. Collusion may also include instances when a writer gets someone else to compose a piece in entirety or in parts and if the writer copies another writer’s work with the consent of the other writer. Allowing others to substantially edit, modify, or correct your work for presentation as individual work is also regarded as collusion that is forbidden and a form of academic dishonesty. Citation and Referencing The traditionally accepted way of acknowledging previous works done by others is by referencing which varies with universities or the disciplines of the subject matter. Before submitting or publishing work, i t is therefore important to first be knowledgeable of the type of referencing system that your university or subject-discipline uses. When a writer refers to a certain piece of published work, in the academic environment, the writer is said to have cited the piece, hence citation styles or referencing styles.